387 million people worldwide suffered from diabetes in 2014.
This number is estimated to increase to almost 600 million by 2035.
Diabetes cause about 4 million deaths per year.
Almost 10% of adult population is affected by diabetes.
There is no cure.
What is diabetes disease?
The most common form of diabetes is diabetes type II or so-called non-insulin-dependent disease – NIDDM. Diabetes type II is often a result of obesity and in the initial stage it does not require the use of medications. Despite that fact, nearly ¼ of all patients have to take regular insulin injections, which are painful and carry the risk of infection.
Diabetes (lat. diabetes mellitus) can be defined as a chronic metabolic disease, characterized by presence of hyperglycemia – increased levels of plasma glucose. According to American Diabetes Association (ADA) and World Health Organization (WHO), hyperglycemia is classified when blood glucose levels exceed 7.0mmol/l. This disease can also be described as a group of metabolic disorders associated with abnormal hydrocarbon economy (primary diabetes). Term “diabetes” refers to a chronic metabolic disorder, manifested by fasting hyperglycemia, glycosuria (presence of glucose in the urine) or elevated blood glucose levels (>11.1mmol/l – 120 minutes after an oral intake of 75g of glucose). Current diabetes diagnostic criteria recognized by both ADA and WHO include the fasting hyperglycemia, while WHO also recognizes the extra glucose test as an additional factor in disease diagnosis.
Depending on disease pathogenesis, we recognize two main types of primary diabetes:
· Type I:
(Juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent; insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; IDDM)
This type of the disease is caused by dysfunction or destruction of beta-Langerhans pancreas cells, responsible for insulin production and secretion. Disease tends to develop rapidly and its symptoms (thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue and weakness) appear suddenly and are severe. Lack of treatment quickly leads to exhaustion of the compensation system and death of the patient. Primary treatment for this type is insulin substitution and rationalization of a life-style (nutrition and moderate exercise). It usually affects young people and children, and accounts to about 10% diabetes disease cases.
· Type II:
(Adult diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; NIDDM)
The cause of this type of diabetes is not a lack of insulin, but its abnormal secretion and/or resistance of the target cells to insulin. Most often diabetes type II is accompanied by obesity and hypertension (metabolic syndrome X). Disease is characterized by the gradual and secret development. In the initial stage gradually worsened hyper-insulinemia causes a feeling of increased appetite (polyphagia). As a result of exceeding thresholds of blood glucose concentration we can observe increased thirst (polydipsia), appearance of glucose in the urine (glucosuria) as well as large amounts of urine (polyuria). Uncharacteristic symptoms include tiredness, and reduction in mental and physical abilities. Dangerous complications are caused by long untreated, secretly developing disease and lack of appropriate hypoglycemic treatment. Treatment of this type of diabetes is initially based on the use of proper diet tailored to the patient’s physical capabilities and oral hypoglycemic medications (anti-diabetic). This type of diabetes affects mainly people over 30 years old and it accounts to about 90% of all diabetes cases.
Diabetes can result in various complications, including:
Diabetes signs and sympthoms:
Although there is no cure for diabetes, there are ways of managing the disease to function normally.
Most widely used and popular way are insuline injections that regulate blood glucose levels but there are many disadvantages associated with this method.
Other option available on the market are insuline inhalors. Recent studies show that this type of insuline intake may cause complications associated with insuline depositions on lungs.
Until now there was no other alternative.